First Monday 2020-08-02T12:14:46-05:00 Edward J. Valauskas Open Journal Systems <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 1,963 papers in 291 issues,&nbsp;written by 2,799 different authors over the past 24 years.. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> Mapping YouTube 2020-08-01T11:53:03-05:00 Bernhard Rieder Òscar Coromina Ariadna Matamoros-Fernández <p>Over the past 15 years, YouTube has emerged as a large and dominant social media service, giving rise to a ‘platformed media system’ within its technical and regulatory infrastructures. This paper relies on a large-scale sample of channels (<em>n</em>=36M+) to explore this media system along three main lines. First, we investigate stratification and hierarchization in broadly quantitative terms, connecting to well-known tropes on structural hierarchies emerging in networked systems, where a small number of elite actors often dominate visibility. Second, we inquire into YouTube’s channel categories, their relationships, and their proportions as a means to better understand the topics on offer and their relative importance. Third, we analyze channels according to country affiliation to gain insights into the dynamics and fault lines that align with country and language. Throughout the paper, we emphasize the inductive character of this research, by highlighting the many follow-up questions that emerge from our findings.</p> 2020-07-16T08:58:56-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Get lost, troll: How accusations of trolling in newspaper comment sections affect the debate 2020-08-01T11:53:01-05:00 Magnus Knustad <p>This qualitative study explores instances where someone is accused of being a troll or a bot in newspaper comment sections. Trolls have been known to create a hostile environment in comment sections, often motivated by attention seeking and amusement. In recent years, following the Brexit vote and the U.S. presidential election of 2016, trolls have also been accused of actively undermining the Western political climate by using social media to divide political opponents. Furthermore, technological development has led to the possibility of automated software, known as bots, playing a role in online debates. As social media users and participants of online comment sections become more digitally literate, the awareness of trolls and bots will hopefully make people less susceptible to online manipulation. But this awareness could also cause commenters to discredit and delegitimize opposing arguments in comment sections by accusing others of being a troll or a bot, without considering the merits of the argument itself. If this is the case, it constitutes a challenge in creating a democratically valuable debate in comment sections. In this study, comments from three U.S. news sites were sampled and analyzed to investigate how accusations of trolling are made, and how debates are affected by such accusations. The results showed that right-wing commenters were more likely to be accused of trolling, and that these accusations seem to have been motivated by political differences. Accusers would either challenge the suspected troll, critique the effectiveness of the perceived trolling, make fun of the suspected troll, or simply warn other commenters about their presence. Finally, while debates often continued after an accusation of trolling had been made, the accuser and the accused rarely participated further. The results suggest that accusations of trolling do not have any major impact on the debate. It is, however, problematic that such accusations seem to be used as a rhetorical tool to discredit opposing arguments, which could lower the deliberative quality of debates in comment sections.</p> 2020-07-17T17:15:39-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday When technology meets ideology 2020-08-01T11:53:00-05:00 Krzysztof Wasilewski <p>This paper uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis of two respected U.S. magazines of opinion — the conservative <em>National Review</em> and liberal <em>The Nation</em> — in the years 1995–2019 to see how they frame discourses on the nature of the Internet. Since media frames organize information and provide a perspective through which message receivers come to understand a subject, they should be regarded as discursive manifestations of political ideologies. This study examines substantive frames which provide a broader context to particular events and information. Just like politicians and mass media are responsible for the construction and dissemination of procedural frames, so magazines of opinion are responsible for the formation of substantive frames, which respond to procedural frames and set them in an ideological background. In order to analyse the process of substantive frame building and frame setting by magazines of opinion, this paper modifies Robert Entman’s cascading network activation model.</p> 2020-07-19T19:47:17-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday UX design in online catalogs: Practical issues with implementing traditional knowledge (TK) labels 2020-08-01T11:52:58-05:00 Dana Reijerkerk <p>At the center of the evolving debates of open access and intellectual property in memory institutions is a long history of excluding Indigenous Peoples from conversations concerning the access and use rights to their belongings. In recent decades many memory institutions challenged prevalent historical and current classifications of Indigenous Peoples in online catalog records. Most recently the Library of Congress (LC) adopted a new cataloging practice called Traditional Knowledge (TK) labeling as a way to return control over access and use of Indigenous materials to their rightful Indigenous owners. The advent of this emergent digital rights tool disrupts previously held assumptions about the purpose of rights statements in catalog records as well as challenges the existing balance between the rights of Indigenous communities and the interests of public access. The adoption of TK Labels in the LC’s “Ancestral Voices” digital collection brings serious practical implementation issues to light that deserve further consideration before memory institutions invest in this new digital access rights metadata standard. Although TK Labels are a technological opportunity that provide more space for community-based relationships within memory institutions, this paper suggests that the practical implementation of TK Labels in Ancestral Voices falls short of its promise to return authority to the Passamaquoddy people. Rather, TK Labels raise more logistical and technical questions about the effectiveness of the TK labeling framework and purpose of re-cataloging records describing Indigenous materials.</p> 2020-07-21T15:38:03-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Who is a PRC user? Comparing Chinese social media user agreements 2020-08-02T12:14:46-05:00 Daniela Stockmann Felix Garten Ting Luo <p>Social media companies rely on user agreements as one means to manage content produced by users. While much has been written on user agreements and community standards of U.S.-based social media, surprisingly little is known about Chinese user agreements and their implications. We compare terms of services as well as privacy policies of WeChat and Weibo between 2014 and 2019 using their U.S. counterparts WhatsApp and Twitter as a benchmark. We find that Chinese user agreements reveal a territorial-based understanding of content management differentiating between PRC and non-PRC users based on language, IP address and country of citizenship. Second, Chinese social media companies are surprisingly transparent about what content can be published, which has implications for self-censorship among users. Third, changes in PRC user agreements reflect Xi Jinping’s tightening control of the Internet. Finally, U.S.-based platforms have moved towards content management that differs by region, thus becoming more similar to the Chinese approach over time.</p> 2020-07-22T13:01:05-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Growing old on Newgrounds: The hopes and quandaries of Flash game preservation 2020-08-01T11:52:55-05:00 Mikhail Fiadotau <p>After December 2020, Adobe Flash, a technology that was once the standard for rich and interactive Web content, will no longer be supported in browsers. This means users will not be able to access the thousands of diverse creations powered by Flash, from animations to digital games. This is particularly problematic for games, which cannot be easily converted into a more modern format. The threat of losing the legacy of Flash has provoked both reflection and action by online communities dedicated to animation and browser-based games, none more so than Newgrounds, the Web portal credited with popularizing Flash games at the turn of the century. As a result, groups of enthusiasts have been able to make significant progress in preserving Flash games. Still, they continue to face numerous challenges, from rigid copyright laws to a relative lack of recognition of the importance of preserving Flash games as such. Consolidating their efforts by joining forces with other like-minded groups may be the key not only to saving digital heritage created with Flash, but also to the longer-term survival of these creator communities themselves.</p> 2020-07-22T20:58:08-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Beyond texts: Using queer readings to document LGBTQ game content 2020-08-01T11:52:54-05:00 Adrienne Shaw Christopher J. Persaud <p>Queer readings of texts allow audiences, queer or not, to see the possibility for queerness in media that does not explicitly name LGBTQ identities. At times these readings are intended by creators but they need not be, as audiences themselves help establish the queer potential of texts through their own reception practices. Studying queerly read content in media necessarily requires moving beyond a singular textual object, as authorship, fandom, and reception practices are all central to identifying queerly readable content in media. Yet scholarship on queerly reading digital game texts has largely relied upon close academic readings of the text itself. Drawing on our ongoing project documenting a large number of games with LGBTQ or queerly read content, herein we argue that given the unprecedented access to fan queer readings online communities make available, we can expand our methodological toolkit for documenting this content. Specifically, rather than considering fan queer readings as data to be analyzed on its own, we argue that these sources can be read alongside game content and producer statements as evidence of queerness in game texts. That is, by moving beyond the text, scholars can address a larger scope of queer reading practices as well as properly value fan work. We conclude that queer readings available in these spaces allow us to archive and preserve queer reception activities, but also allow fans actively shape the meaning of these texts.</p> 2020-07-24T07:35:21-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Investigating “message forwarding behavior” of mobile phone users 2020-08-01T11:52:52-05:00 Devendra Dilip Potnis Bhakti Gala Kanchan Deosthali <p>In an online survey, 108 mobile phone users in the age bracket of 18 to 21 in India reported their emotional responses to six humorous, warning, and philosophical messages in real time. Using open coding, researchers coded respondents’ sentiments into positive, negative, and neutral categories and traced their effect on (a) the respondents’ intention to forward the messages, which was captured in real time; and, (b) potential recipients of the forwarded messages. Findings inform the research on electronic word-of-mouth on social media-based instant messaging platforms and mobile phones. Implications in terms of identifying and containing the spread of misinformation on social media are discussed.</p> 2020-07-25T10:46:34-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Lem on Earth, just in time: A review of Stanisław Lem at MIT Press 2020-08-01T11:52:50-05:00 Edward J. Valauskas 2020-07-28T12:22:45-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday Urey conquers the universe, almost: A review of The Life and Science of Harold C. Urey 2020-08-01T11:52:48-05:00 Edward J. Valauskas 2020-07-28T12:42:18-05:00 Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday