Beyond the Carrot and the Stick: A Behavioral Rejoinder to Rakos

Jerome D. Ulman


In a rejoinder to Rakos (1989), I discuss three inter-related problems: scientifically inappropriate reductionism, a culturally biased concept of human nature, and a bourgeois view of capitalism and socialism. I argue that these three problems result from the Cartesian (positivistic) world outlook in which the part is held to be ontologically prior to the whole, a pervasive philosophical perspective which has also retarded the development of a natural science of human behavior. In response to Rakos' pronouncement that socialism is contrary to human nature, I offer as counter evidence the revolutionary achievements of Cuba's current reform program called rectification.

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