A review of national information and communication technologies
First Monday

A review of national information and communication technologies (ICT) and a proposed National Electronic Initiative Framework (NEIF) by Alan R. Peslak



Abstract
Information and communications technologies (ICT) have had uneven deployment both between nations and within nations. These differences in the use of ICT and the Internet are part of the “digital divide”, an uneven distribution of information and communications technologies and the benefits that accrue from their use. This article examines electronic initiatives to improve implementation of ICT throughout the world and proposes a multi–level national electronic initiative framework (NEIF) including fundamental guiding doctrines, general directives, specific domain areas of activity, and finally deliverables. This framework can serve as a guide to national and NGO (non–governmental) organizations to improve access and utilization of ICT and reduce the digital divide.

Contents

Introduction
Digital divide
Electronic initiative review
Political and philosophical background
Framework for national electronic initiatives
Conclusion

 


 

Introduction

The support of information technology at a national level has gained increasing attention over the past several years. Many countries have provided support to increase information technology use in their nations. This study will review some of the background and concepts that have been proposed and how these proposals can best fit into an overall plan for the information technology development and support. From this review, an overall supported and grounded national electronic initiative framework (NEIF) will be developed, demonstrating how information technology can be supported on a national level.

 

++++++++++

Digital divide

An underlying issue in the development of electronic initiatives is the problem of the digital divide. The digital divide is simply the concept that some individuals or groups have access and use of information technology whereas others do not. Norris (2001) actually sees three aspects of the digital divide: a global divide between industrialized and non–industrialized countries, a social divide between information rich and poor in a nation and a democratic divide between those who can and cannot use technology to participate in public life. ICT includes not only computers and Internet, but telephones, bandwidth, and electronic commerce. There is a tremendous disparity both between countries and within countries for access to information and communication technologies. Various initiatives have been started to address this issue, but limited successes have been achieved. “In Bangladesh a computer costs the equivalent of eight years’ average pay. The two billion people living in low income economies (with average incomes below US$800 per head) have only 35 telephone lines and five personal computers for every 1,000 people, compared with 650 phone lines and 540 computers in America. One in two Americans is online, compared with only one in 250 Africans.” (Woodall, 2000) A digital divide exists even in the U.S. Only 33 percent of those with income less than US$10,000 ever access the Internet, whereas 87 percent of those with income over US$100,000 access the Internet (Peslak, 2004). Any framework for country–wide electronic initiatives must consider all digital divides.

As noted, the digital divide is even a larger issue in many nations. The concept of the digital divide needs to be addressed by greater access. But as noted by Gurstein (2003) access alone is insufficient. A recent international forum discussed the concept of the digital divide and suggested some remedies. One remedy included creation of a super–national body to promote ICT dispersion. This would address situations where country–wide initiatives fail. Other items were the potential for new lower cost technologies, and the need for education of third world country leaders on the benefits of ICT, so that their priorities can be properly sorted. One panelist suggested an increase in foreign investment as a method of addressing the issue, which brings with it infrastructure for ICT. This sets the stage for a trickle down effect (Isomura, 2001).

A.T. Kearney, Inc. and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2001) has also examined the issue of the digital divide. They note that the digital divide is particularly pervasive in Africa where some countries only have hundreds of users. They note that there is a large degree of international cooperation and trade based on ICT. Countries with insufficient ICT are left out in terms of economic development.

 

++++++++++

Electronic initiative review

This report begins by focusing on a review of various electronic initiatives that have been proposed and implemented by governments and non–governmental organizations (NGO). One of the first countries to develop electronic initiatives was the United States. Blumenthal (1998) reports that government support for information technology began at the dawn of the computer age in the 1930s and 1940s with government funding for information technology (IT) defense applications such as cryptography. Government funding for decades supported university–based research.

In 1993, the U.S. started the National Information Infrastructure Initiative (NII). The overall goal of the initiative was to coordinate government support and to develop a National Information Infrastructure including “physical facilities to transmit, store, process and display voice and data images” as well as new electronic and information equipment, programming and database content, software applications, network interconnections, and information technology professionals. The concept promised to take the U.S. into a new information age. This initiative provided direct support and encouraged private investment (Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF), 1993a). The Agenda for Action states:

We are committed to working with business, labor, academia, public interest groups, Congress, and state and local government to ensure the development of a national information infrastructure (NII) that enables all Americans to access information and communicate with each other using voice, data, image or video at anytime, anywhere. By encouraging private sector investment in the NII’s development, and through government programs to improve access to essential services, we will promote U.S. competitiveness, job creation and solutions to pressing social problems. (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993a)

This agenda and its proposals have been supported for more than a decade, bringing the U.S. to a leadership position in ICT in the world today.

One of the major organizations involved in the discussion of issues related to electronic initiatives has been the United Nations. In 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a comprehensive Millennium Declaration which listed the following as “fundamental values essential to international relations” in the new millennium:

  • Freedom;
  • Equality;
  • Solidarity;
  • Tolerance;
  • Respect for nature; and,
  • Shared responsibility.

Included in the document, equality was defined as “opportunity to benefit from development”. A specific resolution of the document listed the following goal:

To ensure that the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communication technologies, in conformity with recommendations contained in the ECOSOC 2000 Ministerial Declaration, are available to all.

In order to achieve this goal, shared responsibility of all member nations is provided, along with the support of the United Nations (United Nations, 2000).

The ECOSOC summit suggested nationwide initiatives which are integrated with national development programs and which support ICT legal and regulatory framework, infrastructure, content, public access, and reduced costs, among other issues (United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2000). Some major items included in the summit documents included:

14. National programmes for putting ICT in the service of development must be integrated into national development strategies, as defined and implemented on the basis of national priorities and on the principle of national ownership of such strategies.

(a) Establishing a transparent and consistent legal and regulatory framework that foster ICT development including, as appropriate, by removing impediments to growth in the ICT sector;

(b) Development of the basic infrastructure necessary for connectivity including for most remote areas; ...

(e) Promoting access to ICT for all by supporting the provision of public access points;

(f) Measures to bring down connectivity costs to make it affordable, including through market–based mechanisms and competition, as appropriate; ...

(l) Promotion of the creation of technological incubators linked to universities and centres for research. ...

(d) Emphasizing the importance of universal access to knowledge and information for promoting development;

(e) Providing global leadership in bridging the digital divide and promoting digital opportunity, and adopting, in order to enhance the capacity of the United Nations system to achieve these goals, a coherent system–wide ICT strategy that would ensure coordination and synergy among programmes and activities of individual organizations of the system and transform it into a knowledge–based system of organizations; (United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2000)

Examples of e–initiatives can be found elsewhere in the world. In Europe, the European Commission has developed a series of initiatives called eEurope (http://europa.eu.int/information_society/eeurope/2005/index_en.htm). This initiative is focused on accelerating the development of the European information economy, noting the gap between Europe and the U.S. in terms of electronic commerce, adopting of the Internet, and use of corporate intranets. The core elements of the eEurope initiative are:

  • Accelerating development of European information economy;
  • Promotion ICT competition;
  • Improving ICT R&D; and,
  • Improving public awareness of ICT.

All these share a common goal of improving the economy in Europe via ICT (Turner, 2001).

At the World Summit on the Information Society (2004) in Baku, many ICT factors were considered in their declaration on the “digital divide and knowledge economy”. The declaration lists nine principles and priorities including government leadership and initiative, inclusion (or universal access), education, safety, security, privacy, and intellectual property rights and content.

In Southeast Asia varying efforts are being expended on the building of e–government. A few countries have experienced significant e–government activities including Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan, and Taiwan. These countries have developed strong government Web sites with significant content and access to information. Countries which have provided extremely low Internet presence include Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Malaysia. At the lowest level with no real Internet presence are North Korea, Laos, and Vietnam. Some information is provided by nations such as South Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines. For the most part electronic presences are closely tied to GDP (gross domestic product) and the economy as a whole. Significant efforts need to be undertaken to improve both the economy of these low Internet countries, as well as the ICT infrastructures themselves (Holliday, 2002).

 

++++++++++

Political and philosophical background

With all this activity in national information policies, there has been little work done to summarize these activities. A beginning for development of a framework for electronic initiatives is to return to the originating principles that serve as the basis for government. Country–wide electronic initiatives, like all acts of government, should support and advance the reasons for government. John Locke suggested the following “ends of political society and government”:

  • Preservation of property;
  • Arbiter; and,
  • Administration and execution of justice (Locke, 1690).

Thomas Jefferson decreed that the reason for government is to protect individual rights of its citizens. These rights were identified as equality, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (Jefferson, 1776). We would propose that all electronic initiatives should follow the principles of the two learned political philosophers and should incorporate:

  • Equality — with a goal of equal access to ICT;
  • Protection of property — including cyber security and protection of intellectual property;
  • Protection of life — including privacy and protection from cyber crime;
  • Liberty — including open access to information content; and,
  • Pursuit of happiness — including specific economic, social, and welfare goals to allow the achievement of a healthy, happy, and prosperous life for all.

These principles are for the most part also included in United Nations declarations.

 

++++++++++

Framework for national electronic initiatives

In examining basic governmental principles, as well as modern economic and social theories and actions, a comprehensive structure can be established that can serve as a guide to electronic initiatives developed in nations. From diverse and varied sources on the role of ICT in e–initiatives for countries, an overall framework can be developed. These national initiatives can be developed by governments such as in Mexico or they can be developed by NGOs such as in Canada. Regardless, the role of e–initiatives and the overall objectives they should strive for can be compiled.

The review of electronic initiatives and historical political principles leads to a proposed multi–level approach to a national electronic initiative framework. Figure 1 demonstrates these levels graphically.

 

National electronic initiative hierarchy

Figure 1: National electronic initiative hierarchy.

 

First, national electronic initiatives should start with general doctrines which have as their basis political philosophical underpinnings. A commonly accepted basis for free government and democracies in the world today are the philosophies proposed centuries ago by John Locke and Thomas Jefferson. The five general rights of man that can be extracted from their writings are equality, life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, and property.

Government thus exists to safeguard and protect these fundamental rights. The highest level of the national electronic initiative is to support these rights of man. The National Electronic Initiative Framework purposes are thus:

  • Provision of equality;
  • Protection of life;
  • Attainment and retention of liberty;
  • Pursuit of happiness; and,
  • Protection of property.

These broad doctrines next lead to the identification of specific directives that electronic initiatives need to address. After reviewing the literature, nearly all of the appropriate specific concepts can be placed into five general directives, corresponding to each of the initiative doctrines. The doctrines and their one–to–one relationship to directives are shown in Table 1.

 

Table 1: National electronic initiative doctrines and directives
Doctrines
Directives
Provision of equality Universal access
Improvement of life Societal enhancement
Attainment and retention of liberty Improved e–government
Pursuit of happiness Economic improvement
Protection of property Legal and regulatory control

 

Each doctrine generally matches with a specific directive. First, perhaps the most important fundamental principle of a free government is the belief in the equality of man. Each person has equal opportunities, equal rights, and equal treatment under the law. Currently we do not have equality in ICT. The digital divide is real both within countries and internationally. The benefits from ICT have been demonstrated. Yet access issues remain. An electronic initiative first and foremost must deal with access. Without access, benefits accrue unevenly to its citizens.

The national electronic initiative framework (NEIF) doctrine dealing with the improvement of Life, leads to a general directive noted as societal enhancement. This is a broad category that incorporates all social issues dealing with the quality of life in a nation including education, health, and the environment.

The NEIF doctrine of attainment and retention of Liberty crosses several boundaries but is related to the goal of improved government through e–government. The use of ICT to reduce cost, improve government, and improve information flow between a people and its government preserves and protects liberty in a free society.

One of the most controversial doctrines noted by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence is the “pursuit of happiness”. Though some view this as a euphemism for personal property, most view this as the goal of every person having the freedom and opportunity to pursue his or her dream. In society, one of those dreams is the attainment of financial well–being. Thus, the “pursuit of happiness” directly relates to “economic improvement” or the ability of all to successfully participate and benefit from a robust economic environment.

The final doctrine of the national electronic initiative framework is protection of property, the most fundamental governmental purpose, according to Locke. This can directly relate to a legal and regulatory control directive. The laws and regulations related to NEIF in large measure deal with issues of personal property. Issues range from privacy to security to intellectual property.

Next, within each of the NEIF classes are the general domains where specific activities as deliverables take place. Table 2 shows the specific domains within directive. The domains also follow from the review of the relevant literature.

 

Table 2: National electronic initiative doctrines and directives
Directives
Domains
Universal accessInformation access
 Communications access
 Infrastructure
  
Societal enhancementEducation
 Health
 Environment
 Agriculture
 International issues
 Integration of ICT into everyday life
 Information content
 Law and order
  
Improved e–governmentProcurement
 Efficiency
 Access to government information
 Communications between citizens and government
 Government Services
  
Economic improvementR&D
 Competitiveness
  
Legal and regulatory controlIntellectual property
 Security
 Cyber–crime
 Privacy
  

 

As an example, within the universal access class, infrastructure, or the telecommunications, hardware, and software support structure, has widespread support from governmental and NGO sources. The government supports the development of a comprehensive information infrastructure including not just physical facilities, but also content, applications, cameras and other equipment, software, network standards and use training (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993a). One of the “common categories ... applied to the numerous initiatives that address international or domestic digital divides” is infrastructure providers (Bridges.org, 2001). Foreign investment brings with it infrastructure for ICT (Isomura, 2001). “Internet development cannot proceed unless more fundamental concerns about infrastructure are addressed.“ (A.T. Kearney, Inc. and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001) Building an IT infrastructure was noted as one of top issues in information systems management (Watson, et al., 1997). Rodolfo of ASEAN suggests the government also must lead in applications and infrastructure (Severino, 2002). The U.N. ECOSOC Summit declaration specifically supports ICT infrastructure in remote areas (United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2000). Baker (2001) supports content, access, and utility/awareness as issues that need to be addressed in an ICT policy. Lynch (2002) suggests that economic concerns are at the heart of both international and social digital divides. McLaren and Zappala (2002) studied Australian families and found the importance of home ICT access and computers, supporting the concept of ICT integration into everyday life.

Support for each of the domains is shown in Table 3.

 

Table 3: National electronic initiatives framework
Class
Area
Reference
Universal access Information access According to the NII Agenda for Action, the “the government has a duty to ensure that all Americans have access to the resources of the Information Age” (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically supports universal access to information.
  Communications access The NII supports “giving all Americans who desire it easy, affordable access to advanced communications and information services, regardless of income, disability, or location” (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). The U.N. General Assembly declares that befits of ICT should “accrue to all” (United Nations, 2000)
  Infrastructure The government supports the development of a comprehensive information infrastructure including not just physical facilities, but also content, applications, cameras and other equipment, software, network standards and use training (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). International forum of ICT experts recommended foreign investment which brings with it infrastructure for ICT (Isomura, 2000). “Internet development cannot proceed unless more fundamental concerns about infrastructure are addressed” (A.T. Kearney, Inc. and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peacey, 2001). The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically supports ICT infrastructure in remote areas.
   
Social Education The NII agenda called for government research and funding programs for development of beneficial public applications in education, health care, manufacturing, and provision of government services (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) supports distance learning programs and learning communities.
  Health The NII agenda called for government research and funding programs for development of beneficial public applications in health care (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b).
  Environment The NII extends and supports “grand challenges” such as weather forecasting and oil and gas recovery (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993a).
  Agriculture One of the “common categories are applied to the numerous initiatives that address international or domestic digital divides” is agriculture (Bridges.org, 2001).
  International issues The U.S. NII supported international scientific cooperation through ICT (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993a).
  Integration of ICT into everyday life One of the “real access criteria” is integration of ICT into daily routines (Bridges.org, 2001).
  Information content The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) supports development of ICT content.
  Law and order Choudhury (2001) supports increase ICT for improved crime detection and prosecution.
   
E–government Procurement An NII core principle is to improve government operation through improve government procurement (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b).
  Efficiency One of the goals for an e–government strategy is reducing costs and streamlining operations (Office of Management and Budget, 2002).
  Access to government information An NII core principle is to provide access to government information (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b).
  Communication between citizens and government The NII supports community access networks for participatory democracy (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993a).
  Government services The NII agenda called for government research and funding programs for development of beneficial public applications in provision of government services (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). One of the subtitles for President Bush’s e–government strategy is simplified delivery of services to citizens (Office of Management and Budget, 2002).
   
Economic R&D An NII key principle is for the government to “act as catalyst to promote technological innovation and new applications. Commit important government research programs and grants to help the private sector develop and demonstrate technologies needed for the NII” (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically supports development of technology incubators. The electronic initiative for Europe, e–Europe, is focused on accelerating development of European information economy through research and development (Turner, 2001).
  Competitive The NII agenda called for government research and funding programs for development of beneficial public applications in manufacturing (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). Specifically mentioned is the promotion of “investments in our nation’s information infrastructure to introduce or further expand competition in communications and information markets” (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). Using information systems for competitive advantage noted as one of top issues in information systems management (Watson, et al., 1997)
The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically supports “providing assistance to developing countries and countries with economies in transition aimed at fully and beneficially integrating them into the networked knowledge–based global economy.” The electronic initiative for Europe is focused on accelerating development of European information economy through promotion of competition (Turner, 2001).
   
Legal and regulatory Intellectual property The NII supports as one of its nine principles protection of intellectual property rights (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically supports a legal and regulatory framework to support ICT development.
  Security Another of the NII nine principles is to ensure information security and network reliability (Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b). The potential of the Internet in any country can only be realized when “individuals have confidence that they can use the superhighway with security and privacy” (Orlowski, 1997). Improving information security and control noted as one of top issues in information systems management (Watson, et al., 1997). The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically addresses ICT security.
  Cyber–crime The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically addresses cyber–crime.
  Privacy The United Nations Economic and Social Council Summit declaration (2000) specifically addresses ICT security.

 

 

++++++++++

Conclusion

Much work needs to be accomplished in electronic initiatives. The digital divide is real and must be addressed. The proposed National Electronic Initiative Framework with theoretical doctrines, and specific directives and domains provide a guide for addressing the divide. The specific deliverables addressed in each domain will necessarily depend on the current state of the nation. In highly developed countries educational actions may focus on skills improvement or retraining, whereas in a developing nation the focus will be on the use of ICT to improve literacy and basic education.

Overall, this work has provided an analysis of the factors that should be addressed in a NEIF. Additional research is encouraged to further develop this framework and use it as a basis for future national programs. End of article

 

About the author

Alan R. Peslak is Assistant Professor, Information Sciences and Technology, at Penn State University in Dunmore, Pa.
E–mail: arp14 [at] psu [dot] edu

 

References

A.T. Kearney, Inc. and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001. “Measuring Globalization,” Foreign Policy, issue number 122, pp. 56–65.

Paul M.A. Baker, 2001. “Policy Bridges for the Digital Divide: Assessing the Landscape and Gauging the Dimensions,” First Monday, volume 6, number 5, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue6_5/baker/. http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v8i12.1107

Marjory S. Blumenthal, 1998. “Federal Government Initiatives and the Foundations of the Information Technology Revolution: Lessons from History,” American Economic Review, volume 88, number 2, pp. 34–39.

Bridges.org, 2001. “Spanning the Digital Divide: Understanding and tackling the issues,” at http://www.bridges.org/publications/65.

Jamilur Reza Choudhury, 2001. “Towards Citizen–Friendly Government: The Role of Information Technology,” at http://www.bytesforall.org/Egovernance/html/towards_citizen.htm.

Michael Gurstein 2003. “Effective use: A community informatics strategy beyond the digital divide,” First Monday, volume 8, number 12, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue8_12/gurstein/. http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v8i12.1107

Ian Holliday, 2002. “Building e–government in East and Southeast Asia: Regional rhetoric and national (in)action,” Public Administration and Development, volume 22, number 4, pp. 323–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pad.239

Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993a. “Benefits and Applications of the National Information Infrastructure,” at http://www.ibiblio.org/nii/NII-Benefits-and-Applications.html.

Information Infrastructure Task Force, 1993b, “The Administration’s Agenda for Action,” at http://www.ibiblio.org/nii/NII-Agenda-for-Action.html.

Hisanori Isomura, 2001. “Beyond the digital divide,” OECD Observer, at http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/462/Beyond_the_digital_divide.html.

Thomas Jefferson, 1776. “The Declaration of Independence,” at http://www.constitution.org/usdeclar.txt.

John Locke, 1690. “The Second Treatise on Civil Government,” at http://www.constitution.org/jl/2ndtreat.htm.

Beverly P. Lynch, 2002. “The Digital Divide or the Digital Connection: A U.S. Perspective,” First Monday, volume 7, number 10, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_10/lynch/. http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v7i10.996

Jennifer McLaren and Gianni Zappalà 2002. “The ‘Digital Divide’ Among Financially Disadvantaged Families in Australia,” First Monday, volume 7, number 11, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_11/mclaren/. http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v7i11.1003

Pippa Norris, 2001. Digital divide : Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Office of Management and Budget, 2002. “E–Government Strategy: Implementing the President’s Management Agenda for E–Government,” at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/egovstrategy.pdf.

Steve Orlowski, 1997. “Government initiatives in information technology security,” Information Management & Computer Security, volume 5, number 3, pp. 111–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09685229710693102

Alan R. Peslak, 2004. “An analysis of regional and demographic differences in United States Internet usage,” First Monday, volume 9, number 3, at http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue9_3/peslak/. http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v9i3.1124

Rodolfo C. Severino, 2002. “Government’s Role in Information Technology,” edited transcript of closing remarks at the ASEAN Executive Seminar on e–Government, at http://www.aseansec.org/13537.htm.

Colin Turner, 2001. “Accelerating the development of the European information economy: The European Commission’s eEurope initiative,” European Business Review, volume 13, number 1, pp. 60–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09555340110380655

United Nations, 2000. “United Nations Millennium Declaration,” at http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm.

United Nations Economic and Social Council, 2000. “Development and international cooperation in the twenty–first century: The role of information technology in the context of a knowledge–based global economy,” at http://www.un.org/documents/ecosoc/docs/2000/e2000-l9.pdf.

Richard T. Watson, Gigi G. Kelly, Robert D. Galliers, and James C. Brancheau, 1997. “Key issues in information systems management: An international perspective,” Journal of Management Information Systems, volume 13, number 4, pp. 91–115.

Pam Woodall, 2000, “Survey: ‘The New Economy: Falling Through the Net?’,” Economist, volume 356, number 8189, pp. 34–39.

World Summit on the Information Society, 2004. “Baku Declaration on Digital Divide and Knowledge Economy–Baku,” Global ICT Conference 2004 Baku (25–28 November), at http://www.global-ict.mincom.gov.az/doc/declration.pdf.

 


Editorial history

Paper received 27 April 2005; revised 19 February 2006; accepted 10 April 2006.


Copyright ©2006, First Monday.

Copyright ©2006, Alan R. Peslak.

A review of national information and communication technologies (ICT) and a proposed National Electronic Initiative Framework (NEIF) by Alan R. Peslak
First Monday, Volume 11, Number 5 — 1 May 2006
http://www.firstmonday.dk/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1331/1251





A Great Cities Initiative of the University of Illinois at Chicago University Library.

© First Monday, 1995-2017. ISSN 1396-0466.